Pruning is removing parts of a plant, either above or below ground. Training, an associative term, usually refers to shaping a plant to the desired form. Gardeners prune and train to ensure safety; maintain a plant’s good health; limit or promote growth; to shape; to encourage flowering and fruiting, and to renew and repair. Put more simply, you prune to keep yourself safe, to keep plants hale and hearty, and to make them do—as far as humanly possible and sensible—what you want them to do. Don’t assume that frequent pruning is necessary for every woody plant in your landscape. Desultory pruning is a mistake too. Always know why you’re sawing, snipping, and shearing.